2007 Förlångsammad fettspjälkning i tarm, minskat födointag, minskad kroppsvikt, minskat kroppsfett, sänkta blodfetter, frisättning av mättnadshormon CCK, djurstudie, råtta.

 

[1].        Albertsson PA, Kohnke R, Emek SC, Mei J, Rehfeld JF, Akerlund HE, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Chloroplast membranes retard fat digestion and induce satiety: effect of biological membranes on pancreatic lipase/co-lipase. Biochem J 2007, 401:727-733.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1770847/

 

Human obesity is a global epidemic, which causes a rapidly increased frequency of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One reason for obesity is the ready availability of refined food products with high caloric density, an evolutionarily new event, which makes over-consumption of food inevitable. Fat is a food product with high caloric density. The mechanism for regulation of fat intake has therefore been studied to a great extent. Such studies have shown that, as long as fat stays in the intestine, satiety is promoted. This occurs through the fat-released peptide hormones, the best known being CCK (cholecystokinin), which is released by fatty acids. Hence, retarded fat digestion with prolonged time for delivery of fatty acids promotes satiety. Pancreatic lipase, together with its protein cofactor, co-lipase, is the main enzymatic system responsible for intestinal fat digestion. We found that biological membranes, isolated from plants, animals or bacteria, inhibit the lipase/co-lipase-catalysed hydrolysis of triacylglycerol even in the presence of bile salt. We propose that the inhibition is due to binding of lipase/co-lipase to the membranes and adsorption of the membranes to the aqueous/triacylglycerol interface, thereby hindering lipase/co-lipase from acting on its lipid substrate. We also found that chloroplast membranes (thylakoids), when added to refined food, suppressed food intake in rats, lowered blood lipids and raised the satiety hormones, CCK and enterostatin. Consequently, the mechanism for satiety seems to be retardation of fat digestion allowing the fat products to stay longer in the intestine.

 

2009 Minskat födointag, minskad kroppsvikt, minskat kroppsfett, frisättning av mättnadshormon CCK, djurstudie, mus.

 

[2].        Kohnke R, Lindqvist A, Goransson N, Emek SC, Albertsson PA, Rehfeld JF, Hultgardh-Nilsson A, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice. Phytother Res 2009, 23:1778-1783.

 

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.2855/abstract;jsessionid=9C2E0C0DA9F4AD6035B1DD7DF87DC85D.f03t02

 

Thylakoids are membranes isolated from plant chloroplasts which have previously been shown to inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase catalysed hydrolysis of fat in vitro and induce short-term satiety in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to examine if dietary supplementation of thylakoids could affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding.

 

2009 Ökad mättnad och minskad hunger vid måltid mätt genom ökad frisättning av mättnadshormon CCK och minskad frisättning av hungerhormon ghrelin. Dosberoende effekt. Minskning av insulin. Måltiden innehöll I huvudsak protein och fett och sparsamt med kolhydrater. Klinisk studie, män och kvinnor.

 

[3].        Kohnke R, Lindbo A, Larsson T, Lindqvist A, Rayner M, Emek SC, Albertsson PA, Rehfeld JF, Landin-Olsson M, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Thylakoids promote release of the satiety hormone cholecystokinin while reducing insulin in healthy humans. Scand J Gastroenterol 2009, 44:712-719.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00365520902803499?journalCode=igas20

 

OBJECTIVE: The effects of a promising new appetite suppressor named “thylakoids” (membrane proteins derived from spinach leaves) were examined in a single meal in man. Thylakoids inhibit the lipase/colipase hydrolysis of triacylglycerols in vitro and suppress food intake, decrease body-weight gain and raise the satiety hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) in rats, but their effects in man remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether thylakoids, when added to a test meal, affect appetite regulation and blood parameters in healthy individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In an intervention crossover study, healthy individuals of normal weight (n=11) were offered a high-fat meal with and without the addition of thylakoids. Blood samples were taken 0 (prior to meal), 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min after the start of the meal. Blood samples were analysed for satiety and hunger hormones (CCK, leptin and ghrelin), insulin and blood metabolites (glucose and free fatty acids). RESULTS: The CCK level increased, in particular between the 120 min time-point and onwards, the ghrelin level was reduced at 120 min and leptin level increased at 360 min after intake of the thylakoid-enriched meal. The insulin level was reduced, whereas glucose concentrations were unchanged. Free fatty acids were reduced between time-point 120 min and onwards after the thylakoid meal. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of thylakoids to energy-dense food promotes satiety signals and reduces insulin response during a single meal in man.

 

2010 Storskalig produktion av thylakoider med pH fällning istället för gradientcentrifugering. Minskad kroppsvikt och kroppsfett hos mus med nytt pulver.

 

[4].        Emek SC, Szilagyi A, Akerlund HE, Albertsson PA, Kohnke R, Holm A, Erlanson-Albertsson C: A Large Scale Method for Preparation of Plant Thylakoids for Use in Body Weight Regulation. Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology 2010, 40:13-27.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10826060903413057

 

A method for preparation of thylakoids from plant leaves on a large scale is described. The method involves: 1) disruption of the cells with a blender followed by filtration to remove large cell debris and non disrupted cells. 2) precipitation of the thylakoids by adjusting the pH to the isoelectric point, pH 4.7. 3) a washing step by dilution of the precipitate in water followed by precipitation at the same pH. 4) concentration of the precipitate by freeze- thawing or freeze -drying to get the final product. The product is characterized, with respect to protein composition, by SDS-PAGE and mass-spectroscopy, the content of carotenoids, particularly the xanthophylls violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin. The thylakoid preparation has about the same capacity to inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase activity as thylakoids prepared by standard laboratory methods using sucrose in the medium and centrifugation. In a study with mice, it was found that, when the thylakoids were added to the food over 32 days, they significantly reduced the body weight gain and the percentage body fat. The large scale method described here allows studies on the effect of thylakoids in appetite regulation on experimental animals in a longer lasting time and also on humans.

 

2011 Förankring av thylakoider till tarmslemhinnan och förlångsammad absorption genom tarmen hos råtta.

 

[5].        Montelius C, Gustafsson K, Westrom B, Albertsson PA, Emek SC, Rayner M, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Chloroplast thylakoids reduce glucose uptake and decrease intestinal macromolecular permeability. Br J Nutr 2011, 106:836-844.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/chloroplast-thylakoids-reduce-glucose-uptake-and-decrease-intestinal-macromolecular-permeability/A966949DD1B6618F5A3C7F448BBFE5E9#

 

Thylakoid membranes, derived from chloroplasts, have previously been shown to retard fat digestion and lower blood glucose levels after oral intake. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of thylakoid membranes on the passage of methyl-glucose, dextran and ovalbumin over rat intestine in vitro using Ussing chambers. The results show that thylakoids retard the passage of each of the test molecules in a dose-dependent way. The thylakoids appear to be attached on the mucosal surface and a mechanism is suggested that the thylakoids delay the passage of the test molecules by sterical hindrance. The present results indicate that thylakoid membranes may be useful both to control intestinal absorption of glucose and to enhance the barrier function of the intestine.

 

2011 Pigmenten stabiliserar thylakoider i tarmen och förklarar varför just thylakoider är verksamma för att ge mättnad jämfört med andra membraner, som bara bryts ner.

 

[6].        Emek SC, Akerlund HE, Clausen M, Ohlsson L, Westrom B, Erlanson-Albertsson C, Albertsson PA: Pigments protect the light harvesting proteins of chloroplast thylakoid membranes against digestion by gastrointestinal proteases. Food Hydrocolloids 2011, 25:1618-1626.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0268005X10002870

 

 

Chloroplast thylakoid membranes inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase activity in vitro and, when included in food, induce satiety signals. As thylakoid membranes themselves are nutrients, containing lipids and proteins, it is of interest to study the digestion of thylakoids by enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. Thylakoid membranes were treated with pepsin, trypsin, gastric and pancreatic juice at 37 degrees C and the resulting enzymatic breakdown was analyzed by gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy. In all cases, several of the proteins were degraded within half an hour, while the main parts of the pigment-protein complexes were resistant for hours. Oil emulsified thylakoids were more resistant towards the enzymatic breakdown. Electron microscopy demonstrated that, after treatments, the thylakoids still remained in a membrane vesicular form. The capacity of thylakoid membranes to inhibit the lipase/colipase activity was partly reduced in all cases. About 50% of the inhibition capacity remained after treatment with pancreatic juice when the thylakoids were present in an oil emulsion. Delipidated thylakoids and plasma membranes, which lack the photosynthetic pigments, were degraded rapidly by pancreatic juice. Conclusion: The pigments, closely bound to the trans-membrane helices of thylakoid membrane proteins protect these from digestion by pepsin, trypsin, gastric and pancreatic juice. This supports the notion that a substantial inhibition of lipase/colipase takes place during the first 2 h in the intestine resulting in a retardation and prolongation of lipolysis in vivo.

 

2011 Emulsifierande egenskaper hos thylakoider. Underlättar användningen av thylakoider i mat som funktionell ingrediens.

 

[7].        Rayner M, Ljusberg H, Emek SC, Sellman E, Erlanson-Albertsson C, Albertsson PA: Chloroplast thylakoid membrane-stabilised emulsions. J Sci Food Agric 2011, 91:315-321.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jsfa.4187/abstract

 

BACKGROUND: Thylakoid-stabilised emulsions have been reported to possess satiety-promoting effects and inhibit pancreatic lipase-colipase activity in vitro, which prompted the investigation of their interfacial properties. RESULTS: Thylakoid membranes isolated from spinach were used as an emulsifier/stabiliser in oil (triglyceride)-in-water emulsions. Emulsions were characterised with respect to droplet size, interfacial tension, creaming, surface load and electron microscopy. The effects of pH and thylakoid concentration were also considered. Droplet size decreased with increasing thylakoid concentration, reaching a plateau around 15 microm beyond concentrations of 2 mg protein mL(-1) oil. The resulting emulsions were stable against coalescence but were subject to creaming. The surface pressure (air/water interface) of the thylakoid isolate was 44 mN m(-1) and the surface load 13 mg m(-2) at 10 mg protein mL(-1) oil. Electron micrographs showed thylakoids adsorbed as bunched vesicles on the drop surfaces. The stabilisation mechanism can be described as a combined effect of surface-active molecules, mainly membrane proteins but also membrane lipids, exposed on surfaces of thylakoid membrane vesicles adsorbed as particles. CONCLUSION: Thylakoid membranes effectively stabilise oil-in-water emulsions, which should facilitate their incorporation in food with satiety-promoting effects. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the emulsifying properties of an isolated biological membrane as a functional ingredient.

 

2013 Prebiotisk effekt av thylakoider med ökad mängd Lactobacillus Reuteri. Minskat födointag. Minskat insulinsvar i test med sockerlösning dvs ökad insulinkänslighet. Studie I råtta.

 

[8].        Montelius C, Osman N, Westrom B, Ahrne S, Molin G, Albertsson PA, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Feeding spinach thylakoids to rats modulates the gut microbiota, decreases food intake and affects the insulin response. J Nutr Sci 2013, 2:e20.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4153289/

 

Thylakoid membranes derived from green leaf chloroplasts affect appetite-regulating hormones, suppress food intake, reduce blood lipids and lead to a decreased body weight in animals and human subjects. Thylakoids also decrease the intestinal in vitro uptake of methyl-glucose in the rat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary thylakoids on the gut microbiota composition, mainly the taxa of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, in rats fed either a thylakoid-enriched diet or a control diet for 10 d. At the same time, a glucose-tolerance test in the same rats was also performed. Food intake was significantly decreased in the thylakoid-fed rats compared with the control-fed rats over the 10-d study. An oral glucose tolerance test after 10 d of thylakoid- or control-food intake resulted in significantly reduced plasma insulin levels in the thylakoid-fed rats compared with the control-fed rats, while no difference was observed for blood glucose levels. Analysis of gut bacteria showed a significant increase of lactobacilli on the ileal mucosa, specifically Lactobacillus reuteri, in the rats fed the thylakoid diet compared with rats fed the control diet, while faecal lactobacilli decreased. No difference in bifidobacteria between the thylakoid and control groups was found. Analyses with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and principal component analysis of faeces demonstrated different microbial populations in the thylakoid- and control-fed animals. These findings indicate that thylakoids modulate the gut microbial composition, which might be important for the regulation of body weight and energy metabolism.

 

2013 Mättnad av thylakoider under måltid hos människa och minskad hungermotivation. Mättnadshormon CCk frisätts. Måltiden består av huvudsakligen kolhydrat, klassisk kontinental frukost. Blodglukos stabiliseras gynnsamt för långvarig mättnad. Kliniska studier, överviktiga kvinnor.

 

[9].        Stenblom EL, Montelius C, Ostbring K, Hakansson M, Nilsson S, Rehfeld JF, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents postprandial hypoglycaemia in overweight women. Appetite 2013, 68:118-123.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019566631300161X

 

 

Thylakoids are chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts that have been isolated from green leaves. It has been previously shown that thylakoids supplemented with a high-fat meal can affect cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, insulin and blood lipids in humans, and can act to suppress food intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. This study investigates the addition of thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal and its effects upon hunger motivation and fullness, and the levels of glucose, insulin, CCK, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in overweight women. Twenty moderately overweight female subjects received test meals on three different occasions; two thylakoid enriched and one control, separated by 1 week. The test meals consisted of a high carbohydrate Swedish breakfast, with or without addition of thylakoids. Blood samples and VAS-questionnaires were evaluated over a 4-h period. Addition of thylakoids suppressed hunger motivation and increased secretion of CCK from 180 min, and prevented postprandial hypoglycaemia from 90 min following food intake. These effects indicate that thylakoids may intensify signals of satiety. This study therefore suggests that the dietary addition of thylakoids could aid efforts to reduce food intake and prevent compensational eating later in the day, which may help to reduce body weight over time.

 

  1. Bindning av lipas/colipas som behövs för fettspjälkning i tarmen till thylakoider. Stark bindning som sker både via de fetter som ingår I thylakoider och de proteiner som ingår. Förklarar varför fettspjälkningen I tarmen går långsammare och kan ge mättnad.

 

[10].     Emek SC, Akerlund HE, Erlanson-Albertsson C, Albertsson PA: Pancreatic lipase-colipase binds strongly to the thylakoid membrane surface. J Sci Food Agric 2013, 93:2254-2258.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jsfa.6034/abstract

 

BACKGROUND: Isolated thylakoid membranes, i.e. the photosynthetic membranes of green leaves, inhibit the activity of pancreatic lipase and colipase during hydrolysis of fat in vitro. This inhibition has been demonstrated to cause reduced food intake and improved hormonal and lipid profile in vivo. One of the reasons suggested for the inhibiting effect is binding of lipase-colipase to the thylakoid membrane surface. This prompted a study of the binding of lipase and colipase to thylakoids. RESULTS: The results showed that lipase and colipase strongly bind to the thylakoid membrane surface. The dissociation constant was determined at 1.2 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) ; binding decreased after treatment of thylakoids with pepsin/trypsin to 1.0 x 10(-7) and to 0.6 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) after treatment with pancreatic juice. Similarly, delipidation of thylakoids caused a decrease in binding, the dissociation constant being 2.0 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) . CONCLUSION: The binding of pancreatic lipase-colipase to the thylakoid membrane is strong and may explain the inhibition of lipase-colipase activity by thylakoids. After treatment with proteases to mimic intestinal digestion binding is decreased, but is still high enough to explain the observed metabolic effects of thylakoids in vivo.

 

2014 Minskat hungerhormon ghrelin, minskat blodsocker och ökad mängd mättnadshormon CCK av thylakoider under konsumtion av sockerlösning. Studie hos gris.

 

[11].     Montelius C, Szwiec K, Kardas M, Lozinska L, Erlanson-Albertsson C, Pierzynowski S, Rehfeld JF, Westrom B: Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test. Clin Nutr 2014, 33:1122-1126.

http://www.clinicalnutritionjournal.com/article/S0261-5614(13)00332-4/fulltext

 

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study, either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours, and decreased late postprandial secretion of ghrelin. CONCLUSION: Dietary thylakoids may be a novel agent in reducing the glycaemic responses to high carbohydrate and high glycaemic index foods. Thylakoids may in the future be promising for treatment and prevention of diabetes, overweight and obesity.

 

2014 Minskad längtan efter sött och sött/fett under två månaders behandling med thylakoider. Sänkta blodfetter och sänkt blodsocker. Subjektiv påverkan. Patienter som fick thylakoider hade lättare att hålla sig till kalorireducerad kost. Klinisk studie. Överviktiga kvinnor.

 

[12].     Stenblom E, Montelius C, Erlandsson D, Skarping L, Fransson M, Egecioglu E, Podgorski K, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Decreased urge for palatable food after a two-month dietary intervention with green plant membranes in overweight women. Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy 2014, 4:4

https://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/decreased-urge-for-palatable-food-after-a-twomonth-dietary-intervention-with-greenplant-membranes-in-overweight-women-2165-7904-4-238.php?aid=33711

 

Background/Aim: The present study investigates the effect of daily green-plant membrane (thylakoid) supplementation for two months on body weight, body composition, metabolic profile and rating of appetite sensations in overweight women on a restricted diet.

 

Methods: 26 women, Body Mass Index (BMI) 27.5 ± 1.9, randomized into a thylakoid (n=12) and control group (n=14), followed a 7500 kJ/day diet with or without 5.6 g of thylakoids supplemented in a blueberry drink, and exercised 60 minutes per day. Fasting blood samples were taken with two weeks interval. On the first and last day of the study subjects answered Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questions regarding hunger and cravings.

 

Results: Both control and thylakoid-treated groups lost body weight and body fat over the course of the study, but no differences were found between the groups. Thylakoid supplementation resulted in decreased hunger (p=0.016) and decreased urge for chocolate (p=0.052) in contrast to the control group. Leptin levels were significantly reduced at the end of the study in the thylakoid-treated group (p=0.012) compared to control, suggesting a decreased fat mass. The overall metabolic profile was also improved in the treated group compared to controls, based on body weight, waist and hip-circumference, trunk and total body fat, p-leptin, p-LDL, p-ApoB1, p-total cholesterol, p-TAG, blood glucose, p-HbA1C and p-insulin (p=0.024).

 

Conclusions: Thylakoids added to food in adjunct to lifestyle intervention may be helpful in enabling overweight subjects to lose weight by suppression of hedonic hunger.

 

2014 Minskat sötsug, minskad hunger, ökad mättnad, minskad kroppsvikt, mer mättnadshormon, GLP-1 under tre månaders behandling med thylakoider. Fri kost, dock uppmaning till tre måltider per dag. Subjektiv påverkan. Lättare att hålla sig till tre måltider per dag utan mellanmål med thylakoider. Klinisk studie. Överviktiga kvinnor.

 

[13].     Montelius C, Erlandsson D, Vitija E, Stenblom EL, Egecioglu E, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women. Appetite 2014, 81:295-304.

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/156f/bbe5c3e38ae1a7c279bca8ce006bf52d4e13.pdf

 

 

The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p < 0.01). Mean weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 +/- 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 +/- 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) compared to control. Single-meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1.

 

 

2014 Effekten av värmebehandling på lipashämning. Hög värme förstör klorofyll och sämre effekt av thylakoider in vitro.

 

[14].     Ostbring K, Rayner M, Sjoholm I, Otterstrom J, Albertsson PA, Emek SC, Erlanson-Albertsson C: The effect of heat treatment of thylakoids on their ability to inhibit in vitro lipase/co-lipase activity. Food Funct 2014, 5:2157-2165.

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2014/FO/C3FO60651A#!divAbstract

 

Thylakoids has been shown to prolong lipolysis by the inhibition of lipase/co-lipase, which makes thylakoids suitable as a functional food ingredient with satiating properties. The components of thylakoids that provide its function as a lipolysis modulator are primarily photosystems I and II, which are structurally stabilised by chlorophyll. However, chlorophyll is known to be heat sensitive yet the enzymatic inhibiting capacity after heat treatment has not been previously studied. It was hypothesised that the retained function of thylakoids after heat treatment could be correlated to the degree of degradation. Heat treatment at either 60 degrees C, 75 degrees C or 90 degrees C for time interval ranging from 15 s to 120 min induced a color shift from bright green to olive brown which was attributed to degradation. The ability of heat-treated thylakoids to inhibit lipolysis in vitro was also reduced. A correlation between chlorophyll a degradation and the enzymatic inhibiting capacity could be established which opens possibilities to use a spectrophotometric method to quantify the ability of thylakoids to inhibit lipase/co-lipase in a more rapid and cost effective way to complement the pH-stat method used today. With the degradation pattern investigated, it is then possible to design a thermal treatment process to ensure a microbiological safe appetite-reducing product and at the same time minimize the loss of functionality.

 

2015 Effekten av värmebehandling på klorofyll. Med hög värme minskad förmåga hos thylakoider att verka som emulsifierande substanser.

 

[15].      Ostbring K, Rayner M, Albertsson PA, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Heat-induced aggregation of thylakoid membranes affect their interfacial properties. Food Funct 2015, 6:1310-1318.

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2015/FO/c4fo01074d#!divAbstract

 

Many of our most popular lipid containing foods are in emulsion form. These foods are often highly palatable with high caloric density, that subsequently increases the risk of overconsumption and possibly lead to obesity. Regulating the lipid bioavailability of high-fat foods is one approach to prevent overconsumption. Thylakoids, the chloroplast membrane, creates a barrier around lipid droplets, which prolong lipolysis and increase satiety as demonstrated both in animal and human studies. However, a reduced lipase inhibiting capacity has been reported after heat treatment but the mechanism has not yet been fully established. The aim of this study was to investigate thylakoids’ emulsifying properties post heat-treatment and possible links to alterations in lipase inhibiting capacity and chlorophyll degradation. Heat-treatment of thylakoids at either 60 degrees C, 75 degrees C or 90 degrees C for time interval ranging from 15 s to 4 min reduced ability to stabilise emulsions, having increased lipid droplets sizes, reduced emulsification capacity, and elevated surface load as consequence. Emulsifying properties were also found to display a linear relationship to both chlorophyll and lipase inhibiting capacity. The correlations support the hypothesis that heat-treatment induce chlorophyll degradation which promote aggregation within proteins inside the thylakoid membrane known to play a decisive role in interfacial processes. Therefore, heat-treatment of thylakoids affects both chlorophyll content, lipase inhibiting capacity and ability to stabilise the oil-water interface. Since the thylakoid’s appetite reducing properties are a surface-related phenomenon, the results are useful to optimize the effect of thylakoids as an appetite reducing agent.

 

2015 Minskad hunger, ökad mättnad, minskad längtan och tvång att äta sött, salt och fett hos människa efter en enda måltid. Omedelbar effekt. Emotional eaters hade bäst effekt. Klinisk studie, överviktiga kvinnor.

 

[16].     Stenblom EL, Egecioglu E, Landin-Olsson M, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women. Appetite 2015, 91:209-219.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019566631500197X

 

Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylakoids significantly reduced hunger (21% reduction, p < 0.05), increased satiety (14% increase, p < 0.01), reduced cravings for all snacks and sweets during the day (36% reduction, p < 0.05), as well as cravings for salty (30%, p < 0.01); sweet (38%, p < 0.001); and sweet-and-fat (36%, p < 0.05) snacks, respectively, and decreased subjective liking for sweet (28% reduction, p < 0.01). The treatment effects on wanting all snacks, sweet-and-fat snacks in particular, were positively correlated to higher emotional eating scores (p < 0.01). The treatment effect of thylakoids on scores for wanting and liking were correlated to a reduced intake by treatment (p < 0.01 respectively), even though food intake was not affected significantly. In conclusion, thylakoids may be used as a food supplement to reduce homeostatic and hedonic hunger, associated with overeating and obesity. Individuals scoring higher for emotional eating behavior may have enhanced treatment effect on cravings for palatable food.

 

2015 Minskad hunger och längtan efter mat med thylakoider givet vid lunch, klinisk studie, män och kvinnor.

 

[17].     Rebello CJ, Chu J, Beyl R, Edwall D, Erlanson-Albertsson C, Greenway FL: Acute Effects of a Spinach Extract Rich in Thylakoids on Satiety: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial. J Am Coll Nutr 2015, 34:470-477.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600649/

 

OBJECTIVE: By retarding fat digestion, thylakoids, the internal photosynthetic membrane system of green plants, promote the release of satiety hormones. This study examined the effect of consuming a single dose of concentrated extract of thylakoids from spinach on satiety, food intake, lipids, and glucose compared to a placebo. DESIGN: Sixty overweight and obese individuals enrolled in a double-blind randomized crossover study consumed the spinach extract or placebo in random order at least a week apart. Blood was drawn for assessments of lipids and glucose before a standard breakfast meal, followed 4 hours later by a 5 g dose of the extract and a standard lunch. Visual analog scales were administered before lunch and at intervals until an ad libitum pizza dinner served 4 hours later. Two hours after lunch a second blood draw was conducted. Mixed models were used to analyze response changes. RESULTS: Compared to placebo, consuming the spinach extract reduced hunger (p < 0.01) and longing for food over 2 hours (p < 0.01) and increased postprandial plasma glucose concentrations (p < 0.01). There were no differences in plasma lipids and energy intake at dinner, but males showed a trend toward decreased energy intake (p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: At this dose, the spinach extract containing thylakoids increases satiety over a 2-hour period compared to a placebo. Thylakoid consumption may influence gender-specific food cravings.

 

2015 Översiktsartikel om thylakoider. Effekten av thylakoider är en aktivering av tarm-hjärna axeln. Hormoner från tarmen går till hjärnan och aktiverar nervsignaler för tillfredsställelse och ointresse för craving efter snacks.

 

[18].     Erlanson-Albertsson C, Albertsson PA: The Use of Green Leaf Membranes to Promote Appetite Control, Suppress Hedonic Hunger and Loose Body Weight. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2015, 70:281-290.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11130-015-0491-8

 

On-going research aims at answering the question, which satiety signal is the most potent or which combination of satiety signals is the most potent to stop eating. There is also an aim at finding certain food items or food additives that could be used to specifically reduce food intake therapeutically. Therapeutic attempts to normalize body weight and glycaemia with single agents alone have generally been disappointing. The success of bariatric surgery illustrates the rationale of using several hormones to treat obesity and type-2-diabetes. We have found that certain components from green leaves, the thylakoids, when given orally have a similar rationale in inducing the release of several gut hormones at the same time. In this way satiety is promoted and hunger suppressed, leading to loss of body weight and body fat. The mechanism is a reduced rate of intestinal lipid hydrolysis, allowing the lipolytic products to reach the distal intestine and release satiety hormones. The thylakoids also regulate glucose uptake in the intestine and influences microbiota composition in the intestine in a prebiotic direction. Using thylakoids is a novel strategy for treatment and prevention of obesity.

 

2016 Minskad fettmassa I synnerhet bukfett med thylakoider. Ökad fettförbränning och ökad aktivering I tarmen av de gener som ansvarar för fettförbränning. Fett från födan blir energi istället för att lagras I fettväv. Studie hos råtta.

 

[19].     Stenblom EL, Egecioglu E, Montelius C, Ramachandran D, Bonn B, Westrom B, Mansouri A, Langhans W, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Dietary thylakoids reduce visceral fat mass and increase expression of genes involved in intestinal fatty acid oxidation in high-fat fed rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2016, 311:R618-627.

http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/311/3/R618.long

 

Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Another set of thylakoid-treated (n = 10) and control rats (n = 10) went through indirect calorimetry. In the first experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 8) accumulated 25% less visceral fat than controls. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase (Fat/Cd36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were upregulated in the jejunum of the thylakoid-treated group. In the second experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 10) gained 17.5% less weight compared with controls and their respiratory quotient was lower, 0.86 compared with 0.91. Thylakoid-intake resulted in decreased food intake and did not cause steatorrhea. These results suggest that thylakoids stimulated intestinal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, resulting in an increased ability of the intestine to handle dietary fat. The increased fatty acid oxidation and the resulting reduction in food intake may contribute to the reduced fat accumulation in thylakoid-treated animals.

 

 

2016 Ändrad bakterieflora hos människa efter tre månader med thylakoider. Förlångsammad magsäckstömning och tarmpassage hos råtta med thylakoider. Omedelbar effekt.

 

[20].     Stenblom E-L, Weström B, Linninge C, Bonn P, Farrell M, Rehfeld JF, Montelius C: Dietary green plant thylakoids decrease gastric emptying and gut transit, promote changes in the gut microbial flora, but does not cause steatorrhea. Nutrition&Metabolism 2016, 13: 67-76.

http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/311/3/R618.long

 

Green-plant thylakoids increase satiety by affecting appetite hormones such as ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The objective of this study was to investigate if thylakoids also affect gastrointestinal (GI) passage and microbial composition. To analyse the effects on GI passage, 16 rats were gavage-fed a control or thylakoid-supplemented high-fat diet (HFD) 30 min before receiving Evans blue. Another 16 rats were fed a control HFD or thylakoid HFD for two weeks prior to the intragastric challenge with Evans blue. The amount of Evans blue in the stomach and the distance of migration in the intestines after 30 min were used as a measurement of gastric emptying and intestinal transit. These were reduced by thylakoid supplementation in the acute study, and however not significantly also after the two-week diet study. The second aim of the study was to investigate if thylakoid-supplementation affects the gut microbiota and amount of faecal fat in healthy human volunteers (n = 34) receiving thylakoid or placebo treatments for three months. Microbiota was analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR, and faecal fat was extracted by dichloromethane. The total bacteria, and specifically the Bacteriodes fragilis group, were increased by thylakoid treatment versus placebo, while thylakoids did not cause steatorrhea. Dietary supplementation with thylakoids thus affects satiety both via appetite hormones and GI fullness, and affects the microbial composition without causing GI adverse effects such as steatorrhea. This suggests thylakoids as a novel agent in prevention and treatment of obesity.

 

2016 Ökad kolhydratmetabolism av stärkelserik föda med thylakoider. Studie hos råtta. Kolhydrater från födan omsätts till energi med thylakoider.

[21]       Masih D, Rakhra G, Nath Singh S: Effect of Thylakoid Supplementation on Activities of Glucose Metabolizing Enzymes in Rats. Adv Weight Loss Manage Med Dev 2016, 1:1:1-8.

 

https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/effect-of-thylakoid-supplementation-on-activities-of-glucose-metabolizingenzymes-in-rats-AWMD-1000101.php?aid=68894

 

Background and aims: Thylakoids are the photosynthetic sites present in the green plant cell which acts as appetite suppressant resulting in loss of body weight and enhancing satiety in animals and humans. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of thylakoids on body weight gain and enzymatic activity of certain enzymes of glucose metabolism.

Methods: Thylakoids from spinach leaves were isolated and freeze dried. Supplementation of spinach thylakoids to Sprague dawley male rats (n=6) at an oral dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight for 4 days was carried out. Food intake, changes in body weight of treated and control rats were monitored and enzymatic activities in liver and muscle tissues were estimated at the end of the experiments.

Results: The gain in body weight was less in treated rats in comparison with control (control 12.1 g and treated 9.6 g, p<0.05). There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in specific activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (control vs. treated, liver: 6 times; muscles: 11.1 times), lactate dehydrogenase (control vs. treated, liver: 5.9 times; muscles: 6.8 times), succinate dehydrogenase (control vs. treated, liver: 1.5 times; muscle: 2.5 times) and malate dehydrogenase (control vs. treated, liver: 1.4 times; muscle: 5 times).

Conclusion: Dietary intake of spinach thylakoids increase the activity of glucose metabolizing enzymes, which indicates increased utilization of substrates for energy production in addition to regulate body weight gain in rats. This may be responsible for observed beneficial effects of thylakoid supplementation.

 

2017 Lägre absorption av fett, mindre fettceller och ökad aktivering av gener som skyddar mot diabetes, PPAR gamma, med thylakoider. Små fettceller är insulinkänsliga, stora fettceller insulinresistenta och förebådar diabetes. Studie hos mus.

 

[22].     Stenkula KG, Stenblom EL, Montelius C, Egecioglu E, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Thylakoids reduce body fat and fat cell size by binding to dietary fat making it less available for absorption in high-fat fed mice. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2017, 14:4.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5225541/pdf/12986_2016_Article_160.pdf

 

BACKGROUND: Dietary thylakoids derived from spinach have beneficial effects on body fat accumulation and blood lipids as demonstrated in humans and rodents. Important mechanisms established include delayed fat digestion in the intestine, without causing steatorrhea, and increased fatty acid oxidation in intestinal cells. The objective of our study was to elucidate if increased fecal fat excretion is an important mechanism to normalize adipose tissue metabolism during high-fat feeding in mice supplemented with thylakoids. METHODS: Mice were randomized to receive HFD or thylHFD for 14 days (n = 14 for the control group and 16 for the thylakoid group). The effect of thylakoids on body fat distribution, faecal and liver fat content, and adipose tissue metabolism was investigated following high-fat feeding. RESULTS: Thylakoid supplementation for 14 days caused an increased faecal fat content without compensatory eating compared to control. As a result, thylakoid treated animals had reduced fat mass depots and reduced liver fat accumulation compared to control. The size distribution of adipocytes isolated from visceral adipose tissue was narrowed and the cell size decreased. Adipocytes isolated from thylakoid-treated mice displayed a significantly increased lipogenesis, and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), down-stream target FAS, as well as transcription factor coactivators PGC1-alpha and LPIN-1 were upregulated in adipose tissue from thylakoid-fed mice. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data suggest that thylakoid supplementation reduces body fat and fat cell size by binding to dietary fat and increasing its fecal excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption.

 

 

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  17. Rebello CJ, Chu J, Beyl R, Edwall D, Erlanson-Albertsson C, Greenway FL: Acute Effects of a Spinach Extract Rich in Thylakoids on Satiety: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial. J Am Coll Nutr 2015, 34:470-477.
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  20. Stenblom E-L, Weström B, Linninge C, Bonn P, Farrell M, Rehfeld JF, Montelius C: Dietary green plant thylakoids decrease gastric emptying and gut transit, promote changes in the gut microbial flora, but does not cause steatorrhea. Nutrition&Metabolism 2016, 13: 67-76.
  21. Masih D, Rakhra G, Nath Singh S: Effect of Thylakoid Supplementation on Activities of Glucose Metabolizing Enzymes in Rats. Adv Weight Loss Manage Med Dev 2016, 1:1:1-8.
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